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  • June 20th, 2024

What are the four P’s of the Biopsychosocial Model?

We use various parameters to determine the health of a person. As soon as you go to a doctor the first thing they do is they will check the most important things about yourself such as pulse rate, breathing, blood pressure, and body temperature. The health of a person can be assessed with the help of their physical condition but it does not always happen. 

With the threat of developing and advancing a mental health disorder but they are not sufficient in stimulating illness growth.

In psychology, the patients are generally fine physically but they are suffering from some psychological problems. They need a counselor who will assess various aspects of the behavior of the patient, their health condition, and their response to social background. It helps to know the main problem behind the indication and mental disorders. 

Before ages, a biopsychosocial strategy was developed for psychological conditions. Psychologists John Romano and George Engel invented the first biomedical models for pathophysiology, clinical medicine, and other biological procedures to heal mental disorders. The biopsychosocial strategy is currently utilized as a crucial technique for understanding the disorder and its origin in particular.

What Do You Mean by the Biopsychosocial Model? 

Do you want to know the aim of such models or who utilizes them or what are the consequences? We are going to give you the appropriate answers. Psychologists all over the world utilize a biopsychosocial model which is a Western drug and biomedical strategy that helps to detect disease through different lenses. 

The biology of health, the psychological situation of the patient, and the effect of society and culture on the patient’s disorder are accessed to find out its birth and majority. 

In a biopsychosocial model four factors known as the 4 P’s are analyzed to learn how and when a specific medical disorder has been developed in a patient. The 4 P’s are as follows: 


The elements that make an individual weak to a particular disorder or illness are called predisposing. Some particular biological interactions and environmental or psychological situations cause the growth of the illness or disorder. 


The elements that stimulate the illness, disorder, or phobia of an individual are called precipitating. The causes of this might be some example, an accident, memory, or behavioral reaction. Just like we shower–tremble or sweat so that our bodies are adjusted to a particular temperature. Likewise, some particular situations may respond to the catalysts. 


As soon as a person has an outbreak of behavioral reaction to the catalysts for their mental disorder they may work for some time. The disorder memorializes after being specified in the psychology or physiology of an individual. 

Protective factors 

The surroundings or the environment of the patient assists in making positive adjustments to their disorder or illness. These are called protective factors. These kinds of factors help a patient in his entire recovery process from a life-threatening disease or an ample healing time. 

The proactive characteristics are the natural psyche, and the proficiency to be innately stubborn. Biological variables grow or lessen risks but they should be extensively analyzed because they generally affect how fast a mental disorder grows and how efficiently an individual deals with it. 

So, we have discussed the 4 P that has a great contribution to a bio-psychosocial model. Some particular disorders can not be detected despite performing medical examinations and innumerable tests. It happens when the physiology of an individual is perfect but the psychological is not fine. These kinds of models are utilized to assist people who have mental disorders. 

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How Do We Utilize the Biopsychosocial Model in Social Work? 

Different social work firms all over the world understand the problems that are required to be handled with profound knowledge. The inequality among the four factors in the bio-psychosocial factors for instance is accountable for growing these kinds of disorders. The healthcare models are now very conscious of identifying the problems from every angle. 

For instance, a person with vulnerable self-control can be tempted to drink alcohol at any time and this can be defined with the help of biopsychosocial analysis. They may be doing such work to mix with their alcoholic friend’s group which is a social factor. 

Their habit will cause liver disorders one day in the future. It is very important for social services to not only study and detect the disorder and signs- through Biopsychosocial models-which are observable at once but also to find out any devising that must be directly or indirectly affecting the issue. 

George Engel referred to the biopsychosocial model as the bio-psycho-social-cultural model. The term was shortened to bio-psychosocial so that it can be easily used as culture was a part of the social element of the model.

Nowadays, holistic healthcare institutions along with psychiatrists, medical specialists, and social workers are becoming very famous. These joint healthcare systems help in identifying the problem from every angle and for this reason, the treatment is suitable for that particular disorder. 

What Are a Few Instances of the Biopsychosocial Model? 

Some examples of the biopsychosocial model are as follows: 

  • Factors that contribute to the growth of a phobia.
  • Elements that contribute to anxiety disorder.

These examples help us to learn the significance of a biopsychosocial strategy in a biomedical model. If we discuss this problem more we will learn that societal impacts always stimulate a disorder. The general strategy for any disorder is to access it physically. But a holistic strategy is the latest trend and biopsychosocial models are the perfect examples of these techniques. 

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